Mradul Mohan* and Debapriya Bhattacharya* Pages 59 - 70 ( 12 )
The emergence of drug-resistant strains among the variety of pathogens worsens the situation in today’s scenario. In such a situation, a very heavy demand for developing the new antibiotics has arisen, but unfortunately, very limited success has been achieved in this arena till now. Infectious diseases usually make their impression in the form of severe pathology. Intracellular pathogens use the host’s cell machinery for their survival. They alter the gene expression of several host’s pathways and endorse to shut down the cell’s innate defense pathway like apoptosis and autophagy. Intracellular pathogens are co-evolved with hosts and have a striking ability to manipulate the host’s factors. They also mimic the host molecules and secrete them to prevent the host’s proper immune response against them for their survival. Intracellular pathogens in chronic diseases create excessive inflammation. This excessive inflammation manifests in pathology. Host directed therapy could be alternative medicine in this situation; it targets the host factors, and abrogates the replication and persistence of pathogens inside the cell. It also provokes the anti-microbial immune response against the pathogen and reduces the exacerbation by enhancing the healing process to the site of pathology. HDT targets the host’s factor involved in a certain pathway that ultimately targets the pathogen life cycle and helps in eradication of the pathogen. In such a scenario, HDT could also play a significant role in the treatment of drugsensitive as well with drug resistance strains because it targets the host’s factors, which favors the pathogen survival inside the cell.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, drug resistance, host-directed-therapy (HDT), anti-microbial resistance (AMR).
National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, Center for Biotechnology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SOA Deemed University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha